HNFP : Stream Restoration Demonstration and Workshop

HNFP : Stream Restoration Demonstration and Workshop

Time flies like an arrow and although it seems improbable, the Hoonah Native Forest Partnership (HNFP) is in its third year of work. Over the past two field seasons, local crews have spent countless hours learning-and-doing natural resource assessment, and the resulting data are being used to generate an extensive list of projects to manage the land, generate subsistence resources, and fulfill landowner management objectives. The final management plan will be written at the end of this year, and project implementation will begin next summer. To prepare for some of the future implementation work U.S. Forest Service Hydrologists, Katherine Prussian, Marty Becker, and Heath Whitacre, arranged a three day stream restoration workshop to simultaneously train the HNFP local workforce and improve stream function of a local salmon stream.

Restoration is necessary when human activity alters a stream to a point where it does not support fish or function properly. The restoration site had only one pool in a half-mile stretch of river, and was chosen because logging had removed trees in the riparian cooridor, and it lacked wood in-stream to slow down water, hold bed-load, and create fish spawning/rearing habitat. Due to that, any structure placed at this site will have an immediate, positive effect for the channel and for fish, and will hopefully improve the stream until trees grow large enough to fall into the tributary again.

This work is important to help this stream because this stream lacks material needed to build pools and habitat for fish.

— Phillip Sharclane, HNFP Crew

The objectives of the hands-on workshop were to review how to select restoration sites, source restoration logs, and complete a stream restoration using hand-tools. Choosing where to place restoration structures in-the stream is important when doing stream restoration to maximize the benefit of the structure to the stream and reduce the risk of high water flushing the new structure downstream.  A key lesson of the workshop was learning to place structures that enhance existing pools and feature. The before and after pictures (Right) of a few of the sites show off how the stream channel changed based on the work of the crews. 

We would like to raise the bed elevation to improve the function and condition of the channel and help with fish habitat…This opportunity is a great example of an all-lands perspective where multiple ownerships are working together for a common goal to restore the landscape.

–Katherine Prussian, U.S. Forest Service

Stream restorations like this project can increase salmon return by creating better habitat for spawning and rearing salmon. Promoting salmon production is a key aspect of the HNFP as they are a highly important community resource and can be actively managed for by each of the three landowners. The data collected by  the Hoonah Native Forest Partnership crews in 2015 – 2017 will ultimately identify many stream restoration opportunities to restore stream function to streams impacted by human activities such as logging or road creation/failure. Future projects will seek to improve stream conditions for salmon by incorporating the innovative techniques learned during this workshop and may be expanded to larger projects using machinery.

Thank you to all of the partners (U.S. Forest Service, Huna Totem Corporation, Hoonah Indian Association) that made this work possible! 

HNFP : Taking LiDAR From Sea-level to Mountaintops

HNFP : Taking LiDAR From Sea-level to Mountaintops

Since the field season of the Hoonah Native Forest Partnership (HNFP) concluded in late October, 2016 there has been a lot of hustle-and-bustle behind the scenes as partners analyze the datasets generated by crews throughout the summer. Three of the key analyses hinge on the use of LiDAR data which was flown over >200,000 acres of the island. One analysis seeks to determine vegetation characteristics based on timber stand characteristics. The other two analyses focus on creating an intrinsic potential model of Pink and Chum Salmon habitat and modeling barriers to fish.  Each of these analyses will provide direct information leading to better management of the landscape and rivers.

Vegetation Study

The goal of the HNFP Vegetation Study is to  provide a very detailed map of both forested and non-forested vegetation types for use in timber, fish and wildlife planning as well as to support local residents in their efforts to gather resources for their households and businesses. The methodology being used combines field data collection and aerial photo classification with LiDAR derived vegetation structure and landscape position data. This is the cutting edge of vegetation mapping on planet earth.  The use of LiDAR to model vegetation structure and topographic features can dramatically cut the amount of time that traditional methods take to reach the same end. In order for the LiDAR data to be useful, crews surveyed random forest plots (n=111),as well as stratified sampling for non-forest plots (n=208) across the landscape. Forest plots were created from the LiDAR data by combining the openness of the forest structure (open, sparse, gappy, closed) and the height ( short, medium, tall) and a random selection was generated from that. Non-forest plots were selected to cover the range of spectral signatures that occur in four-band orthoimagery acquired for the project area.Plot categories were linked to landscape characteristics that drive plant community dynamics such as elevation, aspect and slope. Because of this stratification across topographic characteristics crews had to survey from sea-level to mountaintops at 3,000 feet. At each plot the crew followed a Forest Service protocol requiring them to identify every species of plant within the plot, as well as its percent composition.  They also measured the diameter at breast high (DBH) and height of each tree within the plot.

The data generated by the crew proved to be invaluable to the analysis. Vegetation study leads Conor Reynolds and Bob Christensen are using this analysis to estimate potential for future timber harvest, model deer habitat values under various management scenarios, identify locations to promote blueberry production and estimate future wood availability for salmon habitat maintenance in riparian stands.. This is particularly important in streams where logging occurred up to the river’s edge (before the establishment of the Alaska Forest Practices Act) and large logs are not falling into streams with enough frequency to maintain fish habitat.

“The benefit of the forest inventory to land managers would be that we’ve created a uniform dataset covering the variability of the entire landscape that effectively tells us the size and density of forest cover. This allows for more targeted scheduling of management activities mitigating the negative effects of intermediate stand stages on other resources such as deer and berries.”

— Conor Reynolds

Creating an Intrinsic Potential Model

In order to manage a landscape effectively, it is important to forecast future scenarios and to know the potential of existing habitat. Due to the access difficulties and prohibitive costs associated with conducting extensive on the ground population surveys across large area of rugged southeast Alaska, decision makers are turning toward tools based on remote sensed data for evaluating the associations between salmon populations and their critical freshwater habitat.  Bernard Romey, a graduate student, set out to create an intrinsic potential (IP) model that predicted habitat suitability at the landscape level for spawning chum and pink salmon based on LiDAR derived persistent habitat characteristics such as slope and mean annual flow. Previous intrinsic potential models have been created in Oregon for steelhead trout and coho salmon, however, the IP models created through the HNFP will be the first Southeast Alaska specific chum and pink salmon models. They are likely to benefit communities and land managers across the Tongass National Forest.

 “Our chum and pink salmon Intrinsic potential models, paired with the NetMap stream network analysis software, are powerful leading-edge GIS-based tools that will allow decision makers a ‘first step’ approach for predicting broad-scale areas of potential high quality salmon spawning habitat.”

— Bernard Romey

Modeling Barriers to Fish

The ability for a salmon to travel upriver to its original spawning ground is truly remarkable, but even their exceptional skill is limit as streams become steeper, skinnier, or laced with barriers. Knowing the upper limit of salmon distribution is important for guiding management decisions to avoid disturbance of spawning habitat and to protect salmon populations.  The fine-scale resolution of the LiDAR can be used within the NetMAP toolset to predict the presence of passage barriers such as waterfalls or steep cascades.  Crews walked upstream to survey the height and gradient of potential barriers. These data are being used along with Lidar to refine the barrier prediction model and to develop a map of all salmon streams in the region.   

A Model for the Future

The products derived from the LiDAR for the Hoonah Native Forest Partnership are an emmense benefit. It is our hope that as future LiDAR projects are flown, that our results and methods may be used in future community forest products looking to streamline the process of collecting forest metrics and modeling habitat.

“The results of the vegetation mapping work we are doing for the HNFP are important because it provides a much higher resolution, and more detailed vegetation map for all private and public lands that surround the community of Hoonah. Consistent, reliable and up-to-date natural resource data in the jurisdictional patchwork of public and private lands that is common in areas surround rural communities in southeast Alaska has simply been non-existant up to this point. Historically, this state of affairs has undermined resource assessments that are best conducted at the watershed scale so we are particularly lucky to have access to this new product for the HNFP.

Furthermore, the additional detail in this vegetation map will support much more strategic, collaborative and cost effective project planning and implementation for timber, fish and wildlife resources. In the end, these results will save land owners and managers money, enhance returns on their investments over time, and integrate improved outcomes for residents and visitors who utilize these lands for hunting, fishing, recreation and entrepreneurial endeavors.”

— Bob Christensen

Xunaa Shuká Hít

Xunaa Shuká Hít

When the citizens of Hoonah, Alaska and surrounding Southeast communities arrived at Bartlett Cove in Glacier Bay National Park during the morning of August 25th, 2016, it was a homecoming over 250 years in the making. The powerful events of the day were the culmination of nearly two decades of collaboration between Hoonah Indian Association and the National Park Service which helped heal the past and prepare for the future.

Glacier Bay National Park is the traditional homeland of the Huna Tlingit. In the early 1700’s, Sit’k’i T’ooch’ (“Little Black Glacier”) in Glacier Bay National Park surged forward and pushed the Huna Tlingit from their homeland by destroying their settlements, including L’eiwshaa Shakee Aan. This forced the Huna Tlingit out of their homeland and they eventually settled in Xunniyaa (“Sheltered from the North Wind”) which is today known as Hoonah.  Eventually the glacier receded and the Huna Tlingit began to hunt, fish and gather in Bartlett Cove where there had once been ice. However, in 1925 the establishment of Glacier Bay National Monument and regulations that followed ultimately led to a strained relationship between the people of Hoonah and the National Park Service. This was coupled with ongoing cultural loss due to integration into Western society.  Through a tragic portion of American and Tlingit history much of the language and culture was lots due to repression. Fortunately in recent years patience and collaboration with the NPS has led to development of many program that have helped to strengthen the relationship and served to bring back traditional activities in the park boundaries. In 1995 the concept of a tribal house in the Park was first suggested and the dedication of Xunaa Shuká Hít on August 25th brought that dream to reality.

Entering the Park

The ride over to Bartlett Cove was marked by a Fire Bowl Ceremony symbolizing “feeding the ancestors” and remembering those who were no longer with us. This somber entrance was a reminder to me that this day was not only about going forward for the future, but also to commemorate and embrace those not able to see the day  themselves. After the ceremony we continued to the shores of Barlett Cove and walked up to the Tribal House site.

To begin the ceremonies in Bartlett Cove the traditional donning of regalia commenced. Following tradition the opposite moeity members dressed each other while stating “this is not me placing this on you, but __________”, filling in the name of an ancestor. The regalia marked the clan that each was from with incredible artistry and color. The oldest robe was over 100 years old and its faded colors stood in stark contrast to the vibrant new shawls, but was no less incredible to see.

Canoe Landing Ceremony

After donning regalia hundreds of people walked down to the beach of Bartlett Cove and lit a welcome fire for the canoes.  As I mentioned in my previous article, these hand-carved dugouts were commissioned for the entrance into the park and their emergence from the far shore was remarkable to watch. The heavy fog of the morning shrouded Bartlett Cove in a thick haze, and  by squinting you could see the canoes appear through the curtain of fog. Custom-carved and painted paddles dipped seamlessly into the flat water and the three, vibrant-red boats glided closer to us. On the shore, many members of the community and kids from school were dressed in traditional colors, robes, tunics, and headbands. They stood on the shore waiting expectantly and with anticipation. The canoers approached with their paddle blades raised in the air to signify they came in peace. As the bow of the canoe slide onto shore and the first feet set onto the beach drums broke out, and with paddle blades raised the pullers danced while the throngs of people and brilliant color swayed to the music. As the songs receded the canoe was hoisted onto many shoulders and brought to the Tribal House. A beautiful, hand-woven Chilkat Robe was presented to Master Carver Wayne Price. He was the first of many to wear the robe to celebrate canoe journeys as the robe will travel to future events which include canoe journeys.

Tree Ceremony

Without the correct process the dedication of the tribal house would not be complete. Per tradition, the tree ceremony acknowledged the resources that were required to make the tribal house and canoes. Without the yellow cedar and spruce nothing would have been possible.

Screen Ceremony/Naming Ceremony

All of the artwork in the Tribal Households symbolize stories that are just waiting to be told to be told. During the screen ceremony the clan leaders described the exterior screen of the Tribal House to let the people know what the design symbolized. Finally the name of the Tribal House was announced and breathed life into the Tribal House. Xunaa Shuká Hít. The crowd repeated it three times and it gave me goosebumps. The name approximately translates to “Huna Ancestors House’”. It could not be a more fitting name for a building made to tell the story of the past and prepare for new generations.

It was a privilege to walk into Xunaa Shuká Hít with the Tlingit People. The inside smelled of fresh cedar and spruce, and throngs of people packed around the edges to leave room in the middle for the elders. Each clan leader began to tell the story of their clan as expressed on the interior house screen and house poles. Their stories mingled with the low murmur of the crowd. As they concluded the drums started to pound and the dancing began. The sound made the walls of the tribal house throb and pound. It was a joyous end to a dramatic and memorable day.

Regalia

For me one of the most incredible pieces of the dedication was the art and colors of traditional Tlingit ceremonial clothing. Many of these pieces of regalia are only exhibited during special events. The blankets and robes depict clan crests which are images that document a significant event in a clan’s history and stake claim to a particular bit of territory. An example of this may be seen in the Chookaneidi regalia. In it, the octopus design is meant to memorialize an event in which two Chookaneidi men gave their lives to defend the community against a giant octopus. The crest then stakes the Chookaneidi claim to the Inian Islands where the event occurred.

The Future of Xunaa Shuká Hít

The tribal house dedication is only the beginning of a greater and better relationship between Glacier Bay National Park and the people of Hoonah. This photograph of Tribal President Frank Wright shaking hands with NPS Superintendent Philip Hooge says a lot about a relationship that is starting to bud and provides hope that future trips to Xunaa Shuká Hít will continue to remember the past while preparing for the future.

Special thanks to Mary Beth Moss of the National Park Service for her review of this article. All photographs taken by Ian Johnson. More are available to view online at : http://ianajohnson.com/past-future-xunaa-shuka-hit/

HNFP : A Crew’s View

HNFP : A Crew’s View

A key component of the Hoonah Native Forest Partnership (HNFP) is local workforce development in natural resource assessment.  The goal of the workforce development is to create capacity within the community for future projects and assessment. This benefits the HNFP model by addressing the “triple bottom line”: building social capacity for natural resource assessment, creating a model based on management needs and community values, and striking a balance between timber production and subsistence resource production. An important aspect of workforce develop is asking and gauging what “success” looks like. I spent a day with the HNFP crew reflecting on the summer and gain their insight as one way to measure success and also areas for growth.

How did this work benefit you?

  • Employment
  • Useful hands-on experience on our land
  • Got in shape
  • Learned new skills that I can use in the future
  • Learned a lot of new spots to get berries
  • Am now very confident on navigating our road systems
  • Plant ID
  • Experience and knowledge of our surrounding natural resources

What was the most useful skill learned this summer?

  • Alpine experience
  • Plant ID and what deer prefer to eat
  • Navigation and extensive knowledge of our road system
  • Electroshocking

What Projects would you like to see implemented based on the work that you did?

  • Stream and river maintenance
  • Trail blazing to harvest areas (both game and berries)
  • Informing community of road maintenance needs
  • Alder Thinning
  • Beach cleaning
  • Stream maintenance through wood recruitment
  • Fixing culverts and installing new ones to possibly prevent landslides
  • Identifying for the community the location of berries and fish for subsistence

What is the Purpose of HNFP?

“Using past and present knowledge to determine best ways to sustain and utilize our forests, stream, and rivers.”

— Phillip Sharclane, HNFP Crew

The HNFP crew completed an array of natural resource assessments to quantify deer, fish, and vegetation. They worked through many conditions during a field season spanning from March through October. Their work included quantifying deer and slash, road maintenance and hydrology inventory, fish monitoring, and vegetation plots from the sea to the alpine. The video below highlights the work their summer and also shows off that we can have a bit of fun doing it, too!

An important part of the Hoonah Native Forest Partnership is learning from the experiences we had so that other future projects can pick up where we left off. The field season was long and complex with some ruts in the road. One of the great aspects of the project was digital data collection, however, four different platforms were used to collect data (EZ Tag, DataPlus Mobile, Fulcrum Data App, Cyber Tracker App). Each of these applications required new learning by the crew and new data management steps. Also, since the technology would fail from time-to-time, they asked for greater ability to adapt to technology failures. Working with the data programs could be included in a more extensive pre-field season which they asked for to better prepare them. More of their observations are recorded below.

What could be improved for the next year?

  • Forest Plots – find a way to better collect the data and give more options for where to conduct the surveys
  • Drivers should be higher paid
  • Be able to adapt to the technology failures
  • Have better Westport accessibility and vehicle logistics
  • HIA should provide all the gear needed for the position – cork boots, rain gear, Xtra Tuffs
  • Better navigation maps would create more efficiency for the crew while in the field
  • A weekly plan/ planning further ahead so that the crew can make changes to the plan in the field as needed
  • More pre-season planning with the crew to make sure they have the necessary training
  • Have a structure for raises
  • Leaders and project points should come into the field more to lead the work

Memories from the field:

  • “Get certified in Electro-shocking, locate and identify plant species. Going to the Alpine to do vegetation plots and getting to experience many fantastic views.” Donny Smith
  • “Being left in the ditch after a bear growled at us and everyone ran to the van” Charlie Wright
  • “ I enjoyed being out in the field going to many locations that I had never been to, nor had I even thought that I would ever need to go to. Also had my first experience hiking to an alpine…in my life!!! “ Rosita Brown
  • “ALL OF THE BLUEBERRIES!!!!!” Rosita Brown
  • “See a deer fawn in the river during Tier 2”
  • Charlie’s famous words “just five more minutes”.
  • Road surveys have opened everyone’s eyes to some amazing views and knowledge of roads that need work.
  • All the hiking had everyone losing weight. YAY!!!!!!!!
  • Charlie getting upset about not being informed about needed hip waiters and then having to walk threw a river
  • The time we were doing a forest plot next to a river and a bear ran down the hill into the river scaring the crap out of us.
  • The time I slid down rock pit hill on my butt and I was going faster down the hill then Charlie walking down the hill.

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