Living in rural Alaska can be difficult. Energy costs are among the highest in the nation and quality, locally grown produce is scarce. Pairing a greenhouse with a wood heating system can benefit communities by improving nutrition, lowering energy costs, and providing local employment opportunities. That is why the U.S. Forest Service and the Alaska Energy Authority have partnered to fund Alaska Biomass Heated Greenhouse Handbook. The Sustainable Southeast Partnership and the Southeast Island School District have been selected as sub-contractors to help write this handbook, which will be unveiled at the Wood Energy Conference April 11-12 in Ketchikan.
The overarching goal of this project is to create a guiding document that will help cultivate sustainable, self-sufficient, and resilient communities throughout Alaska. The online “e-handbook” will be a practical handbook to help interested communities plan, build, and manage a school biomass-heated greenhouse. It will inform readers on how to best select greenhouse technology, develop business and operations plans, and integrate biomass and greenhouse-related Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) curriculum into schools.
What’s so special about biomass heated greenhouses?
Schools are the epicenter of most rural Alaska communities. The Southeast Island School District on Prince of Wales Island has illustrated its commitment to local communities by exploring wood boiler and greenhouse options. What started with a few raised garden beds and a heat recovery system in one school has since grown into an island-wide phenomena. Kasaan, Naukati Bay, Thorne Bay and Coffman Cove have all replaced costly diesel generators with wood boiler systems and are using local wood to heat schools, greenhouses, and businesses. The students are served fresh salad at lunch, and the Thorne Bay School is now running managing and operating a local restaurant, the Thorne Bay Café. Read more about the Southeast Island School Districts biomass and greenhouse projects here: “Back to School: Swapping Eggrolls for Rainbow Chard.”
Locally sourced biomass fuels can provide sustainable forest management along with a renewable, reliable energy source. This reduces transportation costs for energy, fossil fuel use and woody biomass waste. Biomass heated greenhouses provide local jobs, keeping food and energy dollars inside a community. Finally, growing food provides security for communities in a state where vast distances and our cold climate can affect quality and dependability of shipments of outside goods.
According to the Alaska Energy Authority, ten Alaska schools out of 507 are heated with biomass systems, five of which have operational greenhouse projects. There is ample opportunity for growth; over the last decade, the Alaska Wood Energy Development Task Group with Renewable Energy Fund grants has worked to encourage the conversion to high efficiency biomass boilers. This guide will build from the existing momentum and recent successes of biomass greenhouses in Alaska Schools.
Written by Bethany Sonsini Goodrich for Edible Alaska Magazine
Across the country cafeteria trays aren’t often admired for their nutrition, freshness, or taste. In rural southeast Alaska, however, a dedicated school district and its greenhouse program are challenging that notion, while invigorating local economies, growing entrepreneurs, and gratifying taste buds.
Prince of Wales Island rests at the southernmost end of Alaska’s panhandle. The communities that make up this island are isolated, connected by seemingly endless miles of winding roads. The Southeast Island School District (SISD) is the major school district on Prince of Wales. It includes nine schools in unique communities from the small Haida village of Kasaan to old logging camps like Coffman Cove. All of these communities share some key challenges. Only one of them has a grocery store of considerable size, and the majority of the food is barged in. By the time these costly imported vegetables hit family plates, they are often wilted and unappetizing. Residents are in search of long-term economic solutions.
As in many small schools across the state, cafeteria lunches also lack crunch. “Small schools don’t have full time cooks and use mostly warming ovens to make eggrolls and burritos,” says Lauren Burch, the superintendent for Southeast Island School District on Prince of Wales Island. “That’s not what we should be feeding our kids.”
Those heat-and-serve lunches are not only uninspiring, they are costly too. “In my school district I lose roughly $100,000 a year even having a food program at all, and that’s gotta come from somewhere,” Burch says. The state’s purse strings aren’t loosening any time soon. Alaskans are witnessing the slicing and dicing of many key programs, including the whittling away of school funding. “State funding right now is traumatizing,” he admits.
But Burch—along with teachers, students, administrators, and community members of Southeast Island School District—is stepping up to face these challenges with gusto. What started with a few raised garden beds and a heat recovery system in one school has since grown into an island-wide phenomena. Kasaan, Naukati Bay, Thorne Bay and Coffman Cove have all replaced costly diesel generators with wood boiler systems and are using local wood to heat schools, greenhouses, and businesses. They are growing their own food, freshening up those lunch trays, and supporting the local economy as they revolutionize district thinking. This inspiring cohort is accomplishing all of this while giving the next generation of Alaska’s leaders a mouth-watering hands-on education.
So, how does it work? Let’s take a tour.
AQUAPONICS: FROM FISH TO FRESH VEGGIES
“Everything we do starts with those fish. All we have to do is feed them. We use their feces throughout the system as nutrients. We use the poop to grow the plants, in short speak,” explains Ieshia Searle. Ieshia is a senior at Thorne Bay High School and has been involved in the greenhouse since its’ inception.
Eager goldfish crowd the window of a big central tank as Ieshia sprinkles a bit of fish food from above. A pump moves nutrient rich water from this tank through colonies of bacteria that filter the solid waste and convert fish feces into a form of nitrogen the plants can use. The water is then funneled into a series of pools where rafts of lettuce float beneath energy efficient LED lights. Different varieties of lettuce reach down into the water, absorbing nutrients while filtering and cleaning the pool. Ieshia pulls up a raft of butter lettuce, carefully inspecting the long spindly roots. “These are beautiful roots!” she declares. “Normally we harvest once a week, if not more, depending how our crops turn out. We actually stay pretty busy at the Thorne Bay greenhouse.”
Over in Coffman Cove, the largest and most impressive of the school greenhouses is over 6,000 square feet. At full capacity Coffman Cove will be churning out 800 heads of lettuce a week. That’s a lot of greens.
But, greens aren’t all that these greenhouses produce. Water continues to move through the aquaponics system into a series of beds containing a very fine matrix material made of coconut husks, which fully filters the water. It then returns to the fish and the loop continues, nourishing everything from turnips and tomatoes to green onions and basil. The vegetables are packaged by students, served in school lunches, and delivered and sold to shops where they reach families throughout Prince of Wales.
INTEGRATED LEARNING: GROUNDING THE ‘COMMON CORE’
All four greenhouses are using adaptations of an aquaponics system. Originally, Thorne Bay tested hydroponics, but made the switch to aquaponics in order to diversify their crops and offer students more integrated learning opportunities. “We wanted to dive more into the process. Hydroponics felt like a mystery machine where you pumped chemicals in and lettuce came out,” says Megan Fitzpatrick, the SISD science teacher. “Aquaponics is more of a natural ecosystem approach to growing.” She is able to teach the nitrogen cycle, soil chemistry, plant biology and more. Students are also able to craft experiments. “It’s more engaging. There is a lot of flexibility,” Fitzpatrick explains.
The greenhouse does not replace the curriculum, it brings it to life. Students spend one hour of class time each day working with the program and experiential learning opportunities abound—for more than just chemistry and the life sciences. Students across the island are investigating ways to make their greenhouse programs as self-sustaining as possible, while learning how to conduct feasibility studies, identify niche markets, gauge supply and demand, and brand their products. They are also looking at ways to improve the system, exploring opportunities for saving energy while increasing food production.
“Working at this greenhouse, I’ve been able to learn how to grow food while also being able to learn how to manage a business and keep it running without having to depend on the school district. At the start, we had the school district buying the seeds and the supplies that we needed, but now we are able to pay them back and make a profit,” Ieshia asserts with pride.
The four greenhouses are part of a larger program that also includes raising poultry, growing apples, making and selling tortillas and pizza dough, and a student-run restaurant and storefront. This engaging combination of projects creates opportunities for teaching business skills, life skills, employment skills and responsibility in a meaningful and hands-on way. “When kids first started here they were so shy and didn’t want to talk about the greenhouse,” says Fitzpatrick. “Now, so many people come by and visit the greenhouse from the community and even the lieutenant governor has stopped by. Kids are learning public speaking skills,” she says. “When students are engaged, they retain and when they retain they are more confident.”
AN IMPACT YOU CAN TASTE
Rural Alaska is hungry for fresh food and innovation. “Our schools absolutely are the heartbeat of the community and play a vital role in the sustainability of these communities,” attests Colter Barnes, the school greenhouse manager on the island. Southeast Island School District is looking at their students as powerful assets for building more resilient communities, supporting the local economy, and addressing food system challenges, while receiving a top-notch education.
“I think the progressive districts are out there saying, how can we do more with less funding, how can we generate revenue? I have a thousand students in my building, how can I give them real learning opportunities that are connected to standards, their diploma, their interests, and strengthens our community, but also generates revenue. There is so much you can do with kids, they want to engage,” Barnes says.
“We need to teach kids healthy eating skills. They need to use knives to cut their food, enough of these heat-and-serve open boxes,” adds Megan Fitzpatrick. “I saw these kids when they first started in the greenhouse. They weren’t eating the stuff and now they’re fighting over it. Seeing kids recognize the healthy benefits of eating fresh vegetables and recognizing that they can do this at home, that is a life skill they can carry on through their adult life. That to me is the most rewarding.”
Back at the school cafeteria, the rewards keep on growing as more and more students swap egg rolls for rainbow chard.
By Alana Peterson
One key element to a successful partnership is communication. In the Sustainable Southeast Partnership, our partner organizations model deliberate communication that results in action. We meet on a monthly basis through Google+ video hangouts where we share ideas and information to strengthen our collaborative efforts. We also participate in daily dialogue on our Google+ community page. Our blog posts, emails, phone calls, and community visits all contribute to a network of individuals and organizations that are highly collaborative, sharing resources, and learning from each other along the way. Finally, we commit to communicating through in-person visits as frequently as possible and commit to two full partnership meetings twice a year (once in fall and once in spring).
This year’s autumn retreat took place in Hoonah, Alaska from October 3-7th. We used this time to develop year-long work plans for our individual and collective projects, learn about projects in Hoonah, and strategize ways to grow and strengthen the partnership in 2017.
Our retreat included a site visit to the new deep water dock and Icy Strait Point, a cruise ship destination that includes adventure options, a zip line, restaurants, a museum and shops. The group was not only inspired by the expansive project that is unique to see in a small SE village, but was also excited to learn about how cultural values and the community have been a priority through the development and implementation of the tourism site. Our group was led by a local Huna Totem shareholder, Brittany who started working at ISP as a ticket taker, and has moved up in the ranks to now working administrative functions in the office. It was clear she has pride in her work, and impressed our entire group in her knowledge and ability to answer all of our questions. We learned that decisions at ISP are made based on a filter of authenticity. Icy Strait Point was built to be as true to the culture and community it represents as possible.
We also spent time learning about the Hoonah Native Forest Partnership, a powerful new model for land management in SE Alaska.
The retreat also included a day-long workshop for community engagement. The workshop, led by Element Agency, gave each partner new skills and tools to plan successful community events such as meetings, workshops, etc. We put the new tools to use by planning and facilitating a community meeting in Hoonah. The goal of the community meeting was to introduce our partnership and outline the current projects in Hoonah. We then opened up discussion to the participants to learn about priority projects that the community has identified, and support those efforts through the SSP network. The meeting concluded with a beautiful performance from the Mt. Fairweather dancers who also prepared a tasty dinner for the event.
Other outcomes of this years retreat included a review of 13 successes from last year’s projects. Between all SSP partners, over 50 projects are taking place in 2017. A full list of those projects can be viewed by clicking here. The partners also dedicated four hours to identifying four priority areas to strengthen the SSP in 2017, they include:
(1) Promote the SSP collective impact model and Triple Bottom Line approach to economic development in each of our communities through direct outreach.
(2) Catalysts & Partners will engage the community, new partners and new demographics to increase community ownership of the Sustainable Southeast Partnership.
(3) All partners will work towards making SSP self-sustaining by improving and implementing our metrics to communicate success for potential funders and by building capacity to fundraise within partner organizations (this includes capacity building activities).
(4) All partners will demonstrate success in projects this year through strategizing community outreach through each communications output and achieving one clear project success in each community this year.
For each of these four initiatives, each participant wrote down one or two actionable steps they will take as individuals this year to move the partnership forward on each initiative. Though tired and drained from a long week of collaborative work, each partner left Hoonah reinvigorated and excited about the year of work ahead.
Southeast Conference, Renewable Energy Alaska Project (REAP) and the Sustainable Southeast Partnership (SSP) are excited to announce a second round of funding for commercial building audits through the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Rural Development program.
If you are a commercial building owner, manager or tenant in Southeast Alaska, now is your chance to get an energy assessment of your building. Thanks to the U.S.D.A. grant, businesses pay just 25% of the cost of the audit!
Last year, businesses and public facilities in Hoonah, Haines and Prince of Wales Island participated, receiving 29 Level I energy audits and 5 Level II audits. The 34 audited buildings totaled over 230,000 ft2. In all, the recommended energy efficiency measures total $382,701. These lighting, HVAC and other recommendations will yield an estimated annual savings of $173,782, a 2.2-year payback if implemented.
Interested Southeast businesses should contact Robert Venables (email@example.com) or Shaina Kilcoyne (firstname.lastname@example.org). Communities will need at least three businesses to get them on the Auditor’s schedule, so talk to your neighbors!
With an audit, businesses will be eligible for USDA’s Rural Energy for America grant and loan Program for renewable energy and energy efficiency measures. Loan Guarantees are competed continuously throughout the year.
Community members clustered around tables at the Hoonah Indian Association (HIA) community building in Hoonah on Sunday afternoon. Some had already celebrated Mother’s Day in the morning and now were here to discuss energy solutions in their small islanded-grid town of 800. Hoonah became one of five high priority areas for the Department of Energy’s Office of Indian Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory when HIA was accepted into the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) program in 2015.
Participants categorize energy projects and goals for discussion
The first step of the program is to complete a three-day community meeting in order to develop a Strategic Energy Plan for Hoonah. Many efficiency and renewable energy priorities were discussed throughout the three day meeting.
You can find energy data on Hoonah and all Alaskan communities through the Alaska Energy Data Gateway.
Community members discuss an energy vision with the help of moderator Paul Kabotie, Kabotie Consulting
Written by Quinn Mas-Aboudara, Community Catalyst for Klawock Cooperative Association
Joshua Zimbrich finishing off installing the new LED lighting
Through the assistance and great patience of Shaina Kilcoyne of the Sustainable Southeast Partnership (SSP), the Klawock Cooperative Association, in partnership with the Klawock Heenya Corporation was able to submit our pledge for the RACEE (Remote Alaskan Communities Energy Efficiency) competition. RACEE is facilitated through the Department of Energy and the program is intended to “empower remote Alaskan communities to develop and implement solutions that can effectively advance the use of reliable, affordable, clean-energy and energy efficient solutions that are applicable throughout rural Alaska and potentially in other Arctic regions” (from energy.gov).
Before we even received confirmation that our pledge had been accepted and that we were eligible to continue to Phase 2 of the RACEE competition, the Klawock Cooperative Association took action and promptly began to implement Energy Efficient lighting throughout the Klawock Cooperative Association’s buildings.
As of last month, 90% of the lighting throughout the Klawock Cooperative Association’s Administrative offices had been converted from conventional fluorescent lighting to energy efficient LED lighting. In addition, the inefficient ballasts used in 80% of our lighting fixtures have been removed by the wonderful electricians from Prince of Wales Electric and Repair (PoWER) which will also improve our overall energy efficiency.
On February 15th, the submitted pledge for the RACEE competition was accepted. This qualifies the community of Klawock for Phase 2 of the RACEE Competition which will provide technical assistance as we push to decrease energy usage and develop projects that increase energy efficiency as a community. We will compete with 64 other Alaskan communities for between three and five Implementation Grants of up to $1 million. This potential grant funding would help Klawock to further implement energy saving measures and programs during Phase 3.
In 2008, the state of Alaska announced its goal of becoming 15% more energy efficient by 2020. In alignment with the state, Klawock as a community wants to become 15% more efficient in the next four years. So let’s all do our part and work together to meet this simple and attainable goal!
Here are some easy low-cost and no-cost ways to save energy in your homes and businesses:
- Install a programmable thermostat to lower utility bills and manage your heating and cooling systems efficiently.
- Use sunlight wisely, during the heating season, leave shades and blinds open on sunny days, but close them at night to reduce the amount of heat lost through windows. Close shades and blinds during the summer or when the air conditioner is in use or will be in use later in the day.
- Air dry dishes instead of using your dishwasher’s drying cycle.
- Turn things off when you are not in the room such as lights, TVs, entertainment systems, and your computer and monitor.
- Plug home electronics, such as TVs and DVD players, into power strips; turn the power strips off when the equipment is not in use — TVs and DVDs in standby mode still use several watts of power.
- Lower the thermostat on your water heater to 120°F.
- Take short showers instead of baths and use low-flow shower heads for additional energy savings.
- Wash only full loads of dishes and clothes.
- Air dry clothes.
- Check to see that windows and doors are closed when heating or cooling your home.
- Drive sensibly; aggressive driving such as speeding, and rapid acceleration and braking, wastes fuel.
- Look for the ENERGY STAR® label on light bulbs, home appliances, electronics, and other products. ENERGY STAR products meet strict efficiency guidelines set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy.
- Turn It Off,don’t forget to flick the switch when you leave a room. Remember this at the office, too. Turn out or dim the lights in unused conference rooms, and when you step out for lunch. Work by daylight when possible. A typical commercial building uses more energy for lighting than anything else.
- LED Bulbs,a new LED (light-emitting diode) light bulb costs as little as $5. Thanks to its efficiency and long life, it will save more than $100 over its lifetime. LEDs are the way to go as they work great and use up to 85 percent less energy to deliver the same amount to light. Today’s LED light bulbs come in virtually any shape, light level or flavor you can imagine. They reach full brightness instantly, dim, and direct the light exactly where you want it. And check to see whether your local utility offers a rebate, sometimes as high as $5 per bulb, to bring the cost of the bulb down to just a few bucks.
Also something worth mentioning for many business owners and homeowners that utilize tube lighting:
Sam Peters explaining energy savings of installing LED lighting (while basking in the glow of a said LED light)
Before purchasing LED tube lighting make sure that you know whether the fixture has a ballast or not. Most LED tube lighting products do NOT state that they will not function properly if the fixture has a ballast. So before making the LED switch it is highly recommended that you check with a licensed professional to ensure your fixtures are ballast free. As discussed with Sam Peters of Prince of Wales Electric and Repair, you will actually be able to decrease your power usage by removing the ballasts from older functions, which translates to even greater savings for the home or business owner. Mr. Peters recommends the Hyperikon T8 LED Light Tubes, stating that they provide clean, crisp light, and have an exceptionally long lifetime.
Together as a community, we can take great strides forward in energy efficiency and energy independence. The RACEE competition is an exciting way to build momentum for energy efficiency however, every action we take to become more efficient will benefit our community regardless of whether we receive future grant funding or not. Happy Energy Saving Klawock!